Immune Response to Hepatitis E Viral Infection in Hospitalized Patients in Assiut
Rafaat, Marwaa M.
Mohamed, Ismaiel Seddik (supervised)
Deafm, Enas Abdel Megeed (supervised)
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H epatitis E virus is an enterically transmitted pathogen and is responsible for large-scale epidemics of hepatitis around the world. HEV infections have not been known to become chronic; however, recently, persistent HEV infection, with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, has been reported in patients with reduced immune surveillance induced by chemotherapy or post-transplant immune suppression. HEV is a small, non-enveloped, single-strand, positive-sense RNA virus of approximately 7.2 kb in size. HEV is classified in the family Hepeviridae consisting of four recognized major genotypes that infect humans and other animals. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans and often associated with large outbreaks and epidemics in developing countries with poor sanitation conditions, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 HEV infect humans, pigs and other animal species and are responsible for sporadic cases of hepatitis E in both developing and industrialized countries. There exist three open reading frames in HEV genome: ORF1 encodes non-structural proteins, ORF2 encodes the capsid protein, and the ORF3 encodes a small phosphoprotein. ORF2 and ORF3 are translated from a single bicistronic mRNA, and overlap each other but neither overlaps ORF1.